Drone News

Construction is one of the largest industries in the world, accounting for $10 trillion annually, about 13 percent of global GDP.

But while productivity in adjacent industries like petroleum and mining has skyrocketed with the advent of new technologies, productivity in the construction sector has remained flat.

A new company called Doxel, which today announced $4.5 million in funding and unveiled an artificial intelligence and computer-vision system for the construction industry, is betting it can change that. With backing from Andreessen Horowitz, Doxel has positioned itself to shake up an industry that has been slow to change over the last half-century.

Currently, the big problem managing construction projects is accurately predicting and measuring a single metric: labor productivity. While managers can easily tabulate how many hours a construction worker spends on a task, they don't have an accurate measure of how much work is actually accomplished or whether that work is being done correctly.

The result is a gross disparity between expectations and results. According to McKinsey & Company, ninety-eight percent of large-scale construction projects are delivered, on average, eighty percent over budget and twenty months behind schedule.

The crux of the Doxel's proposition is that you can't improve productivity if you can't measure it. To that end, the company uses autonomous devices to visually monitor every inch of a project day-by-day. It feeds that data to proprietary deep learning algorithms that inspect the quality of installed work and quantify progress in real time.

As a result, project managers can react to inefficiencies immediately.

"Without real-time visibility into quality and progress, managers simply can't boost productivity," CEO and cofounder Saurabh Ladha explains. "Our turnkey solution digitizes the physical world and compares actual performance to original schedule and budget plans."

The company uses autonomous devices, including drones, equipping them with LIDAR and HD cameras. Drones are growing increasingly common on construction sites for everything from inspection to updating clients.

Doxel's proprietary artificial intelligence algorithm processes three-dimensional visual data to inspect installation quality and quantify how much material has been installed correctly.

"If you could have an alarm that went off when your project was going over budget or off course, wouldn't you want to use it?" poses Lars Dalgaard, General Partner at Andreessen Horowitz, nicely cutting to the heart of Doxel's sales pitch. "For an industry that is notorious for cost overruns and delays, we see Doxel as the canary in the coalmine for construction projects."


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Real estate has become the number one industry in North America that uses drones for marketing purposes. And the numbers projecting the growth of the drone industry are staggering: 

10 million drones were sold worldwide last year, that number is expected to nearly triple by 2021

Drone industry value was estimated at $3.3 billion in 2015; by 2025, it’s expected to be $90 billion

NAR reports that the interest in using drones for marketing is already pervasive: 44% of members either use drones for marketing (14%), report that someone in their office uses drones for marketing (12%), or plan on using drones for marketing (18%).

CREA is also monitoring the development of drone use in real estate. 

Drones have transformed real estate marketing when it comes to listing a property. Overall, the impact of drones has made aerial photography commonplace. Soon, most sellers may request it for their property listings.

What’s driving this trend?

Increase accessibility:

We wrote about the 2016 FAA drone guidelines in the U.S. that were favorable to real estate, and now 770,000 drones are registered with the FAA. In Canada, rules are currently stricter than the U.S., but the popularity of power of aerial footage has not slowed down the desire to use them in listing videos.

Agents are responsible for learning the rules to flying a drone legally and safely. 

Lower costs:

Greater competition and advances in technology that makes it easier to operate a drone have driven down costs. There are online services to hire pilots throughout North America. And more professional photographers are offering drone footage as part of their listing photo services.

The “wow” factor is still a factor:

Drone footage is still novel enough that you can “wow” sellers when you show them a neighborhood aerial footage during a listing presentation. It has nearly the same impact as a 3D-video tour, like Matterport. For agents in many markets, offering drone marketing can still be a competitive differentiator.

It helps you sell homes:

Not every property can benefit from drone marketing, but those that can, do. Video is a very powerful tool for marketing. Drone video footage can provide dramatic views of the entire property, increase video traffic and video sharing, provide spatial perspective, property’s setting, show the proximity to key local amenities (water – playgrounds – parks – schools) and nearby services (stores – hospitals), let the viewer see the entire neighborhood from a whole new perspective, and create an emotional connection.

What’s next?

Is a self-flying, autonomous drone taking aerial shots of your listings in your future? Since we often see the applications of advanced technology in military, industrial and major commercial applications first, we have a clue that this concept may not be so far-fetched. A company based in Israel, Airobotics, recently received the first certificate in the world to fly a fully automated drone, with no human operator. It operates fully automated drones. They are contained in giant boxes for industrial solutions (video is here). They serve energy and mining industries for maintenance, security, mapping, and surveying. These drones can even change their own batteries!

The day could come when you order a drone from your smartphone that would arrive in a box at the front door of your new listing. All you would have to do is open the box, and move the drone inside to the middle of the yard with a clear view of the sky. You would open the app you pre-loaded on your phone when you ordered the drone and follow a few instructions. Your app would power on the drone. You would step back and let the automated software fly around the property. It would shoot and store the footage you need, and land the drone safely back where it started. You would package the drone back in the box, ready for return.

The only question is will Amazon be delivering that future drone-in-the-box to you, with another drone?


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DRONES on farms are becoming more and more popular so it wasn't a surprise to see a few around Beef Australia this week.

Much larger than the average run-of-the-mill drone is the DroneAgriculture, a large, heavy-lift octocopter drone with a lift capacity of 20kg that has an aerial application of granule herbicides in confined areas.

DroneAgriculture is a joint venture between AeroBugs and Granular Products to provide a service wherea chief pilot comes to the farm, flies the drone and sprays all of the infesting weeds.

"We saw a need to treat smaller areas and harder to access areas and we teamed up with Nathan,” Granular Products Sales Paul Hubbard said.

"Aerobugs has been going for five years and we have been doing a lot of stuff out in horticulture and in the cotton fields but this is the first time for us in the beef environment,” Drone Agriculture Chief Pilot and Aero Bugs founder Nathan Roy said.

"A lot of farms may need to focus their attention on other aspects of the business and other hard tasks on a bit of a hill or really thick pieces of noxious weeds where we can just take that pain away from them,” Nathan said.

The services is a thorough process.

"We have someone come out into the paddock, assess it for different areas and we map it up into polygons and we gave that to Nathan,” Paul said.

The drone has GPS point tracking and field plotting technology which allows the drone to run along a pre-programmed track. Terrain following allows the drone to follow at the slope and depth of the ground while spraying through precision herbicide equipment.

"There is a platform we use to map up a flight plan and then once it is uploaded into the drone, you enable the auto-flight and the drone will actually fly those weigh-points and you can turn the spreader on and off to release the granules,” Nathan said.

Sitting on a table in the RuralCo site, the drone has caught the eye of many passers-by, with long propellers and the tank in the middle.

"Beef is a great platform to launch any new technology, it is a pretty impressive machine and it draws a lot of attention, asking a lot of questions,” Paul said.

"From the response we have had here, it is amazing, so many farmers have gone, 'that is what we need, can you do this?',” Nathan said.

"A lot of people from everywhere, from Albury Wodonga, all the way up to the Atherton Tablelands, over in the Northern Territory.”

Drone work has mainly been targeting the infesting giant rats tail grass along the eastern seaboard.

"We have also had enquiries from people and the Meat and Livestock Australia looking to do work with the prickly acacia in western Queensland,” Paul said.

"It's a got a fit for a wide range of geographic areas.”

All pilots are trained and licensed Civil Aviation Safety Authority and have chemical accreditation.


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While they sometimes might have a reputation for being nothing more than fun novelties, drones have a very important job in high-risk environments like mines, construction sites and landfills: They’re helping keep employees safe.

In these types of environments, danger is everywhere. Huge and heavy equipment can still be hazardous, even if you’re driving around a site. However, instead of placing themselves in harm’s way, employees can fly drones over a site, gathering data and images without stepping foot in areas full of natural and manmade hazards.

Employers across the country are using drones for dozens of different business applications. Common industries using drones include construction, emergency management, mining, and oil and gas.

The challenge, then, is getting business executives on board with implementing drone technology into their employees’ day-to-day workflow.

Getting Comfortable

As with all emerging innovations, drones have had their naysayers. However, over the past couple of years, more business leaders have started to become comfortable with incorporating drones into their employees’ jobs, especially those who have seen firsthand how challenging – and potentially fatal – certain tasks can be.

A prime example comes from the mining industry, where employees use drones to improve workflows and reduce injuries and deaths. The drones perform versatile tasks such as taking pictures and inspecting key equipment in hard-to-reach places. Historically, these procedures would have required the help of a consultant; instead, miners rely on drones and data analysis experts to cull and evaluate collected data.


Despite the exciting advantages, executives open to drone technologies often hear complaints from workers who don’t understand the long-term benefits of handing over key responsibilities to a machine.

In these cases, leaders must focus on selling drones’ safety aspects without raising concerns about possible job losses. Individuals are still very much needed; they just become more efficient when they use drones. In fact, studies have shown that over the past 140 years, new technology has created more jobs than it has eliminated. Drones enable employees to allocate valuable time to other important work that a machine can’t handle.

With education, supervisors can relieve concerns and help their employees see drones as useful additions to their daily workflow – not something to be suspicious about. At that point, mining and solid waste executives can lean on several strategies to adopt drones into their work schedules to make sure work gets done and everyone comes home to their family at night.

Take Business to New Heights

What are some of the biggest responsibilities of working drones? The first is equipment inspection.

With incredible speed, drones can cover large plots of land in a short amount of time to take measurements and monitor equipment. Through their eagle-eyed sensors and cameras, they can check for issues in places where people wouldn’t have comfortably gone in the past. Additionally, they can be sent into areas that are far too remote, difficult to reach or risky for employees to consider entering.

A second advantage to having drones “on staff” is to eliminate the need for individuals to walk around on stockpiles. In the past, people would collect inventory measurements and other data by hand, but drones can now more effectively measure stockpile volumes, therefore speeding up response time if immediate action is needed.

Drone technology can even become a part of indoor facility inspection. Many manufacturing plants and related buildings have areas that are too dangerous to send workers but still need regular examinations. Sending a drone to these spaces compromises only equipment and promises the possibilities of valuable information.

On-the-Job Future

Employees in a wide range of industries face hazards almost daily. From the likelihood of experiencing falls to stepping into an environment that could lead to an explosion, they put their lives on the line. But why should they continue to put in hours on tasks that could cause injury or fatalities when drones could help them avoid those risks?

Drones aren’t replacements for humans – they’re valuable extensions to improve human efficiency. Drones can be used to gather data and calculate stockpile measurements, perform site surveys, and, most importantly, keep employees out of harm’s way. Best of all, they want nothing in return for their precision, reliability and convenience, making them some of the most trustworthy, dependable lifesavers employees could have.


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Australian research into southern right whales using drone surveillance has for the first time revealed the high cost on the mother of giving birth and raising a young calf.

Fredrik Christiansen, who led a team of researchers from Murdoch University Cetacean Research Unit, says baleen whales have one of the fastest offspring growth rates of any mammal.

“However, until now very little has been known about the toll this takes on the mother because it has not been possible to apply standard field metabolic techniques,” he says.

Dr Christiansen used drone photography to develop a novel method of measuring the amount of energy required for whales to reproduce.

The researchers monitored 40 mother-calf pairs, taking 1118 photos of body size estimates over periods ranging from 40 to 89 days.

Southern right whales journey thousands of kilometres from their sub-Antarctic feeding grounds to the Head of Bight, South Australia, to give birth.

The right whales stay for about three months to fatten their calves before returning to Antarctica.

For about four months they do not eat and rely solely on their fat stores.

“We quantified the cost of early calf growth for the mothers over a three-month breeding season by comparing the relationships between calf growth rate and the rate of loss in maternal body volumes,” says Dr Christiansen.

Southern right whales give birth to offspring about 5 metres long, or one-third the size of the mother when born. They double in size by the time they are weaned three months later.

“Calves grow really fast during the first months of their life and so there is a considerable energetic cost to the mother during lactation, since she is not feeding during this time and only relies on her own body reserves,” says Dr Christiansen.

Lactating females lose an average of 25% of their body volume in the first three months while the calf grows by an average of 3.2 cm in length each day.

“The study shows the considerable energetic cost that females face during lactation and highlights the importance of having sufficient maternal energy reserves to reproduce.”

It costs a mother around 126 litres of volume per day to feed their calf and support their own metabolic needs. At the same time the calf grows on average about 80 litres in volume daily.

Longer and more round females invest more energy in their calves compared to shorter and leaner females.

However, a big female in poor condition can invest the same energy as a small female in superb condition so human disturbance of a small female may have a bigger negative impact on reproduction.

Dr Christiansen says the findings provide important baseline information about the body condition of southern right whales that can be used for monitoring purposes.

“By knowing the cost of reproduction for southern right whale females, we can now use drones to monitor the body condition of this population between years to see if females have sufficient energy reserves to successfully wean their calf,” he says.

Other factors such as shipping, oil and gas development and climate change can all negatively affect the body condition of whales.


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Queensland University of Technology researchers are attempting to weed out invasive plants from coastal areas using drones and artificial intelligence.

The Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, along with Aspect UAV, are partners in the project, which scans vegetation to spot weeds that would otherwise blend into the environment.

The researchers are plugging the images into a classification algorithm to identify bitou bush, an officially designated weed of national significance.

The data is then highlighted in images and on maps to show biosecurity officers areas to target for eradication work.

The project expands on work by QUT associate professor Felipe Gonzalez, who specialises in UAV autonomy, computer vision and remote sensing.

"This research in particular demonstrates the potential capabilities of unmanned aerial vehicles, when they are paired with artificial intelligence and software tools, to efficiently monitor exotic weeds with an increasingly affordable and flexible approach,” Professor Gonzalez said.

"The automated analysis of the images gives a faster and more reliable method of detection as well as tangible and immediate benefits, including, in this case, a precise and exact report of the weed via a GPS database, full coverage of the studied area in challenging terrain, and reduced times while gathering reports of the weed’s distribution.”

Biosecurity Queensland officer Stacy Harris said the project offers the potential for a more cost-effective and reliable system for detecting introduced species.

She said surveys are currently undertaken using specialised personnel on foot and in manned aircraft, which can be extremely challenging and costly.

"There are also areas that cannot be easily surveyed, due to the difficult terrain and density of vegetation,” said Harris.

"Drone and machine learning technology such as this is a big step forward, as it allows for a more accurate process of detecting [bitou bush], and a more efficient eradication program, so we can help stop its spread.”

QUT is currently expanding the capability of the classification algorithms so they can be used in more diverse terrain and with a wider range of plants.

"Part of the novelty of this approach is the potential of analysing and gathering accurate and feasible reports of other weeds in the short- and mid-term without transforming significantly the system by itself," Gonzalez told iTnews.

"The experience collected in this project will improve response programs for future control and eradication programs not only for the surveillance of flora but also for fauna species."


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Some 300 drones lit up the night sky over Jerusalem's Mount Herzl Wednesday night as Israel celebrated countrywide 70 years of sovereignty.

The beautiful aerial display took place during the traditional torch-lighting ceremony in the capital. A modern take on the annual firecracker show, the drone display as well as the team that operates it originate in the American-based semiconductor manufacturing company Intel.

On Wednesday it was announced that Intel CEO Brian Krzanich planned to attend the ceremony as a special gesture in honor of the country's anniversary festivities.

The company has a branch in Israel, where it employs some 11,000 Israelis in research and development centers.

The drones created gorgeous blue images against the backdrop of the dark night sky, forming the portrait of the father of modern political Zionism (also known as Chozeh HaMedinah) Theodor Herzl as well as renowned Israeli and Jerusalem-specific symbols such as a dove with an olive branch in its mouth, the Israeli flag, the Tower of David, the Dome of the Rock and the Chords Bridge.

The high-tech performance, which is revered worldwide, makes use of colorful LED illumination and GPS sensors. The drones, dubbed "Shooting Stars," are extremely light and weigh some 330 grams each. They are flown in a synchronized way via special technology that enables a single drone operator to maneuver a slew of them at a time.


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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, commonly known as drones, have become a big business over the last few years, and the market is still continuing to grow. Business Insider predicts sales to grow beyond $12 billion in the year 2021. While drones already have a number of applications, a businesses can hire a programmer who can apply Augmented Reality to the technology in order to expand the possibilities.

When combined with AR, drones can be equipped with an advanced range of capabilities that will open up new opportunities for recreation, business, and government. This post will detail some of the ways AR is already changing the way drones are used.


Gaming is one of the most obvious applications for Augmented Reality drones. One example of this is the Mission Drone from Air Hogs Connect. With the Mission Drone and the linked app, users can pilot a physical UAV through virtual AR missions in . The app simulates a city through which the user can user can navigate the drone to complete various rescue missions.

Law Enforcement

Drones have the potential to significantly benefit law enforcement, and some police departments are already deploying drones in their fight against crime. Drones could be used for all manner of things, like surveillance, crowd monitoring, accident reconstruction, patrol, suspect apprehension, and search and rescue missions. UAVs could also be used to provide conditional awareness for police that are dealing with things like active shooter situations and hostage rescue.

Disaster Response

Some cities are starting to use drones as a tool for disaster response. During some recent disasters, drones were deployed to help find people that were in need of assistance. They have also been used to create disaster maps and assess damage after events like hurricanes and earthquakes. By using AR to overlay important data, drones could increase the effectiveness of and improve safety for first responders.


Engineers are already employing drones for a number of different applications. By adding AR technology, drones can be used to make several engineering tasks easier and even improve the results of some processes.

Surveyors are using drones to assist in evaluating land, and with AR, they could superimpose valuable geographic data over the images that come from the drones.

Engineers could also use drones to inspect bridges and levees. Construction engineers would be able to use drones to create 3D models of a project before the ground is even broken.


In recent years, drones have been used at the scene of some fires. In 2017, firefighters in Los Angeles deployed drones to help fight wildfires, and in London, firefighters used drones to help survey the Grenfell Tower fire.

Using drones, infrared cameras, and AR technology, technology can be used to create heat maps that can help firefighters locate hotspots. These can also help locate people that need rescue, and can survey a building to find where flames are spreading. This ensures that the structure is still safe for firefighters to enter.

We are already starting to see some of the ways in which AR can be applied to drones to make them more useful, but this is just the beginning. As AR developers experiment further with drones, they will find new applications for AR-enhanced UAVs.


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A sleek, spidery drone lifts off from Robert Nicholson's driveway, strafing the front of his colonial-style home while he tracks the vehicle's flight via a handheld view screen. The high-definition footage recorded by the drone's swiveling camera gives the landscape a cinematic quality, potentially catching the eager eye of a prospective buyer should the owner put his house up for sale.

Nicholson, founder of Aerial Visual Technologies and a recently minted real estate agent with Keller Williams, has no plans to sell anytime soon. But according to Nicholson and other area agents, drone photography and videos are becoming a potent industry tool — perhaps the most important innovation to enter real estate marketing since the internet — providing a visually compelling advantage in a marketplace congested with static two-dimensional photographs.

"With drones we can scale a property, put it into a video, and give you exact measurements based on GPS coordinates," Nicholson said. "As a seller, you can make it more functional for a buyer to say, 'This is what I'm getting.' In today's society, I have about 25 seconds to get your attention. You have to give people something different, because they get tired of the same thing."

Real estate professionals are employing these airborne cameras to produce swooping shots of homes or commercial buildings, showcasing properties from dramatic angles previously limited to expensive helicopter fly-bys.

As the technology is still relatively novel, using drones can raise an agent's profile and bring much-needed excitement to a listing, said Matt Gunn, owner of Gunn Photography Services, a Parma-based commercial drone company with a focus on real estate.

"If you have 1,000 homes, you'll have maybe 30 using aerial photos (in their listings)," Gunn said. "Drone photography is a unique way to market a property."

Gunn's company also made a teaser video using a drone for commercial brokerage firm Avison Young. The two-minute clip offers a bird's-eye view of the University Square shopping complex in University Heights, illuminating the 10-acre parcel's attributes as a mixed-use boon. Voice narration, graphics and low-key music lend the video an additional professional polish aimed at would-be development partners.

"Drone footage helps us hype the property that we're marketing," said Avison Young vice president David Horowitz. "We want to stand out and catch people's attention."

The technology has practical benefits as well. Cleveland production company Aerial Agents created a video of a large Avison-brokered industrial property on Cass Avenue, adding graphics to outline specific areas of the parcel ready for redevelopment. Still shots of the highlighted parcel were then used in the firm's printed marketing materials.

"It's geared toward developers who could assess the parcel and know what they have to work with," Horowitz said. "There's not many brokerages using videos with different angles and zooms."

Most homebuyers begin their search online, so differentiating properties through a high-quality "virtual tour" is key, drone proponents said. Keller Williams' Nicholson points to a ground-level photo of a lakefront colonial from a real estate magazine. While there's nothing wrong with a traditional curb-appeal shot, some choice overhead images would make the property pop in the mind of a buyer, he said.

"With a drone you could see the lake, the horizon, and the beach that sits behind the house," said Nicholson. "But you can't because this house looks like every other house on the block."

Drone imagery also saves time, as it displays details of a property a buyer may not glean until they get on site.

"Maybe a family doesn't want to deal with an in-ground pool because of the maintenance," Nicholson said. "If I'm a buyer's agent, I don't want to drag them to 15 different houses they're not going to want."

Howard Hanna real estate agent Susan Smith said drones are best suited for expansive single properties or sprawling developments. For instance, Howard Hanna flew a drone over the Bridgeport luxury home complex in Mayfield Heights, giving viewers insight on individual dwellings along with the overall layout of the neighborhood.

"It's exciting because it's interactive," said Smith. "You can start from a home's entrance and literally pull someone through the property."

For all its benefits, a drone can't shoot all the photography and video needed to market a listing. The technology is not well suited for interiors of smaller spaces, or properties shrouded by trees and other buildings, noted Gunn of Gunn Photography.

"I don't do interiors unless it's for large warehouses where I can fly safely inside," he said. "I've been asked to do mansions, but the risk isn't worth the reward. I don't want to crash into somebody's chandelier."

Realtors hiring a drone photographer should be aware of legal and safety risks, area experts said. Any professional company will have a Federal Aviation Administration Part 107 UAV Operator's certificate as well as liability insurance that specifically covers piloting a drone for commercial photography purposes. The National Association of Realtors even offers a guide to help agents navigate the ever-growing realm of flying cameras.

Regarding privacy concerns, Nicholson will inform a client's neighbors if he's shooting a house, and will make sure to block particular lines of site — if there are children outside, for example — upon request.

With the spring home buying season underway, drones will continue to be a valuable asset utilized by the forward-thinking real estate company, he said.

"This technology is not going away; it's only getting better," Nicholson said. "Sooner or later, drones or going to take over the industry. It's one of those things where you either jump on or you get left behind."


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Advancements in the robotics field are helping to transform a number of industries, construction being one of them. Companies that build things can expect to see a host of new machines that perform a variety of tasks -- adding efficiency to construction projects as well as reducing injuries to human workers.

"More and more construction companies are beginning to realize and appreciate the value of robots at the jobsite," said Al Cervero, senior vice president, construction, mining & utility, at the Association of Equipment Manufacturers (AEM).

"Robots not only increase precision but also improve working conditions from an ease and safety perspective," Cervero said. "Unmanned and autonomous machines will soon become the norm. In fact, these types of machines are being produced and sold by almost every manufacturer," that is part of the AEM, according to Cervero.

Automation is primarily seen today in mining and farming, Cervero said, because these sites are constant from day-to-day and year-to-year. "With farming, whether the job is planting, fertilizing or irrigating, each step is similar to the previous step," he said.

In construction, automation is more challenging due to the complexity of the work and the fact that every site and every project is constantly changing.

"In fact, you could potentially have multiple fleets of different machines that are all working simultaneously on all aspects of the job," Cervero said. "Drones could also be considered robots in a way and are frequently being adapted to many construction projects to map, document and in some cases control the site itself."

A construction project is paid, in many cases, by completion. Data analytics and drones are being used today to map the progress and completion of a phase, and then to map the next phase, Cervero said. "Data analytics and telematics are also used to understand how a day-to-day process on a construction site can be improved and made more efficient," he said.

These technological advancements have made it possible for construction machinery to constantly transmit all kinds of data to cloud-based systems, while the cloud-based systems are simultaneously communicating back to the machines to understand the next step of the building process, Cervero said.

Wearable devices "are another clear indication of how new technology works with robotic/autonomous construction equipment," Cervero said. "Wearables can identify safe and unsafe locations on the jobsite and provide overhead display of a project via augmented reality that digitizes real-time plans for comparative and next phase planning."

AEM is holding its CONEXPO-CON/AGG show March 7-11 in Las Vegas, where many of these newer technologies will be on display. The exhibit will feature everything from autonomous and remote-controlled machinery to the first-ever 3D-printed excavator. Other products include advanced drones for mapping, wearable radio frequency identification vests, visual augmented reality display hard hats, solar-powered roadways, and self-healing asphalt.

No, robots won't take your job -- just part of it. 


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